For a full list of publications, please visit Google Scholar.


Wall, E.K.†, Teo, J.N.†, Roth, A., Chan, M.E.,  Brandt, J., Hibri, M., Richardson, R. & Baker, K.D. (in press). Effects of social buffering on fear extinction in adolescent rats.  Behaviour Research and Therapy.   "†" - joint first authors

Cuevas, K., Adler, S., Barr, R., Colombo, J., Gerhardstein, P., Hayne, H., Hunt, P.S., and Richardson, R. (in press). Commentary on the Scientific Rigor of Sen and Gredebäck‘s Simulation: Why Empirical Parameters are Necessary to Build Simulations. Child Development.

Zimmermann, K.S, Richardson, R. & Baker K.D. (in press). Developmental Changes in Functional Connectivity between the Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala following Fear Extinction. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Bryant, E.M., Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (in press). The relationship between salivary Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and cortisol reactivity and psychological outcomes prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports.

Bae, S.E. & Richardson, R. (in press).  Behavioral Tagging in the Developing Animal. To appear in "Synaptic Tagging and Capture, Second Edition", co-edited by Sreedharan Sajikumar and Ted Abel.   

Di Polito, N., Stylianakis, A.A., Richardson, R. & Baker, K.D. (2023). Real-World Intake of Dietary Sugars Is Associated with Reduced Cortisol Reactivity Following an Acute Physiological Stressor.  Nutrients, 15, 209.


Bryant, E.M., Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (2022). The Association Between Salivary FGF2 and Physiological and Psychological Components of the Human Stress Response. Chronic Stress, 6, 24705470221114787.

Stylianakis, A.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2022). Pharmacological enhancement of extinction retention in non-stressed adolescent rats but not those exposed to chronic corticosterone.  Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16, 822709.

Harmon-Jones, S.K., & Richardson, R. (2022). Adults Who are More Anxious and Were Anxiously Attached as Children Report Later First Memories. British Journal of Psychology, 113, 455-478.

Maheu, M.E., Sharma, S., King, G., Maddox, S.A., Wingo, A., Lori, A., Michopoulos, V., Richardson, R., & Ressler, K.J. (2022). Amygdala DCX and blood Cdk14 are implicated as cross-species indicators of individual differences in fear, extinction, and resilience to trauma exposure. Molecular Psychiatry, 27, 956-966.


Pestana, J. E., McCutcheon, T.B., Harmon-Jones, S.K., Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (2021). Maternal experience does not predict fear extinction and anxiety-like behaviour in primiparous rats post-weaning. Frontiers Global Womens Health, 98.

Bisby, M.A., Stylianakis, A.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2021). Fear extinction learning and retention during adolescence in rats and mice: a systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 131, 1264-1274.

Harmon-Jones, S.K. & Richardson, R. (2021). Maternal care, infant fear memory retention, and the moderating role of variations in separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. Developmental Psychobiology, 63, e22177.

Harmon-Jones, S.K., Graham, B.M., King, G., & Richardson, R. (2021). It’s all about who you know: Memory retention of a rat’s cagemates during infancy negatively predicts adulthood hippocampal FGF2 . Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 182, 107448.

Richardson, R., Bowers, J., Callaghan, B.L., & Baker, K.D. (2021). Does maternal separation accelerate maturation of perineuronal nets and parvalbumin-containing inhibitory interneurons in male and female rats? Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 47, 100905.


Harmon-Jones, S.K., Cowan, C.S.M., Shnier, N., Richardson, R. (2020) Is good memory always a good thing? An early offset of infantile amnesia predicts anxiety-like behavior throughout development in rats. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 135, 103763.

Bisby, M.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2020). Deficits in opioid receptor-mediated prediction error contribute to impaired fear extinction during adolescence. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 133, 103713.

Zimmermann, K.S., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2020). Esketamine as a treatment for paediatric depression: questions of safety and efficacy. The Lancet: Psychiatry, 7, 827-829.

Bisby, M.A., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2020). Developmental differences in the effects of CB1/2R agonist WIN55212-2 on extinction of learned fear. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 99, 109834.


Stylianakis, A.A., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2019). Timing is everything: Developmental differences in the effect of chronic corticosterone exposure on extinction retention. Behavioral Neuroscience, 133, 467-477.

Bae, S.E. & Richardson, R. (2019). Brief isolation during infancy enhances the formation of long-term memories. Behavioral Neuroscience, 133, 437-447.  

Cowan, C.S.M. & Richardson, R. (2019). Early-life stress leads to sex-dependent changes in pubertal timing in rats that are reversed by a probiotic formulation. Developmental Psychobiology, 61, 679-687. 

In this video, Caitlin describes her work examining the effects of early life stress, puberty onset, and probiotics (filmed for ISDP).

Zimmermann, K.S., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2019). Maturational changes in prefrontal and amygdala circuits in adolescence: implications for understanding fear inhibition during a vulnerable period of development. Brain Sciences, 9, 65.

Cowan, C.S.M., Stylianakis, A.A., & Richardson, R. (2019). Early-life stress, microbiota, and brain development: Probiotics reverse the effects of maternal separation on neural circuits underpinning fear expression and extinction in infant rats. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 37, 100627.    

Elliott, N. D. & Richardson,R. (2019). The effects of early life stress on context fear generalization in adult rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 133, 50-58.    

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2019). Fibroblast growth factor-2 enhancement of extinction recall depends on the success of within-session extinction training in rats: a re-analysis. Psychopharmacology, 236, 227-238.    

King, G., Baker, K.D., Bisby, M.A, Chan, D. Cowan, C.S.M., Stylianakis, A.A., Zimmermann, K.S., & Richardson, R. (2019). A Precision Medicine Approach to Pharmacological Adjuncts to Extinction: A Call to Broaden Research. Psychopharmacology, 236, 143-162.


Bae, S. E. & Richardson, R. (2018). Behavioral tagging in infant rats. Learning & Memory, 25, 580-586. 

Graham, B.M., Dong, V., & Richardson, R. (2018). The impact of chronic fluoxetine on conditioned fear expression and hippocampal FGF2 in rats: short- and long-term effects. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 155, 344-350.   

Baker, K.D., McNally, G.P., & Richardson, R. (2018). D-Cycloserine facilitates fear extinction in adolescent rats and differentially affects medial and lateral prefrontal cortex activation. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 86, 262-269.   

Stylianakis, A.A., Harmon-Jones, S.K., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2018). Differences in the persistence of spatial memory deficits induced by a chronic stressor in adolescents compared to juveniles. Developmental Psychobiology, 60, 805-813.   

King, G., Graham, B.M., & Richardson, R. (2018). Effects of D-Cycloserine on Individual Differences in Relapse of Fear. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 84, 115-124.   

Cowan, C.S.M. & Richardson, R. (2018). A brief guide to studying fear in developing rodents: Important considerations and common pitfalls. Current Protocols in Neuroscience, 83, e44.   

King, G., Graham, B.M., & Richardson, R. (2018). Individual Differences in Fear Relapse. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 100, 37-43.   

Kan, J.M. & Richardson, R. (2018). Ghosts of mother’s past: Previous maternal stress leads to altered maternal behavior following a subsequent pregnancy in rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 60, 278-291.   

Bisby, M.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2018). Elucidating the mechanisms of fear extinction in developing animals: A special case of NMDA receptor-independent extinction in adolescent rats. Learning & Memory, 25, 158-164 


Graham, B.M., Zagic, D., &, Richardson, R. (2017). Low Endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Levels Are Associated With Heightened Conditioned Fear Expression in Rats and Humans. Biological Psychiatry, 82, 601-607. 

Newall, C., Watson, T., Grant, K.-A., & Richardson, R. (2017). The relative effectiveness of extinction and counter-conditioning in diminishing children’s fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 95, 42-49. 

Baker, K.D., Gray, A.R., & Richardson, R. (2017). The development of perineuronal nets around parvalbumin GABAergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 131, 289-303. 

Baker, K.D. & Richardson, R. (2017). Pharmacological evidence that a failure to recruit NMDA receptors contributes to impaired fear extinction retention in adolescent rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 143, 18-26. 

King, G., Scott, E., Graham, B., & Richardson, R. (2017). Individual differences in fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior. Learning & Memory, 24, 182-190.


Walters, E. Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (2016). Individual differences in conditioned fear expression are associated with enduring differences in endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and hippocampal-mediated memory performance. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 134, 248-255.

Kan, J.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2016). A mother’s past can predict her offspring’s future: Previous maternal separation leads to the early emergence of adult-like fear behavior in subsequent male infant rat offspring. Behavioral Neuroscience, 130, 511-520.

Baker, K.D., Bisby, M.A., & Richardson, R. (2016). Impaired Fear Extinction in Adolescent Rodents: Behavioural and Neural Analyses. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 70, 59-73

Callaghan, B.L.*, Cowan, C.S.M.*, & Richardson, R. (2016). Treating generational stress: Effect of paternal stress on offspring memory and extinction development is rescued by probiotic treatment. Psychological Science, 27, 1171-1180 (*= equal first authors).

Cowan, C.S.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2016). The Effects of a Probiotic Formulation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. helveticus) on Developmental Trajectories of Emotional Learning in Stressed Infant Rats. Translational Psychiatry, e823.

Cowan, C., Callaghan, B.L., Kan, J., & Richardson, R. (2016). The lasting impact of early-life adversity on individuals and their descendants: Potential mechanisms and hope for intervention. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 15, 155-168.

Richardson, R., Cowan, C. S.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Kan, J.M. (2016). Effects of Early-Life Stress on Fear Memory in the Developing Rat. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 7, 15-20.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2016). Individual differences in the expression of conditioned fear are associated with endogenous fibroblast growth factor 2. Learning & Memory, 23, 42-45.

Furlong, T.M., Richardson, R., & McNally, G.P. (2016). Habituation and extinction of fear recruit overlapping forebrain structures. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 128, 7-16.


Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2015). Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 as a New Approach to Fighting Fear. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 959-960. 

Baker, K.D. & Richardson, R. (2015). Forming competing fear learning and extinction memories in adolescence makes fear difficult to inhibit. Learning & Memory, 22, 537-543. 

Den, M.L., Graham, B.M., Newall, C., & Richardson, R. (2015). Teens that fear screams: A comparison of fear conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement in adolescents and adults. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 818-832. 

Byrne, S.P., Rapee, R.M., Richardson, R., Mahli, G.S., Jones, M., & Hudson, J.L. (2015). D-Cycloserine Enhances Generalization of Fear Extinction in Children. Depression & Anxiety, 32, 408-414. 

Chan, D., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2015). Relearning a context-shock association after forgetting is an NMDAr-independent process. Physiology & Behavior, 148, 29-35. 

Bridget L. Callaghan & Rick Richardson (2015). The development of fear and its inhibition: Knowledge gained from preclinical models (PP. 83-94). In “Primer on Anxiety Disorders”, D. Pine, K. Ressler, B. Rothbaum, & A. Muskin (Eds). Oxford University Press.


Full width intro with adjustable height, background image and a color overlay. Click any text to edit or style it.

Develop your own site - Click here